Born in Alabama in 1942, Mitch McConnell began his career as an elected official as judge-executive of Kentucky's Jefferson County in 1977. Elected to the U.S. Senate as a moderate Republican in 1984, he displayed a political acumen that enabled him to rise to the position of minority leader in 2006. McConnell gained national attention for his opposition to President Barack Obama's legislative ambitions, helping to turn the tide against Democratic control of Congress. Named Senate majority leader in 2014, he infamously refused to allow Senate hearings for a new Supreme Court nominee in 2016 following the death of Justice Antonin Scalia.
Early Years and Education
Addison Mitchell McConnell Jr. was born on February 20, 1942, in Sheffield, Alabama. After contracting polio at age 2, he recovered through his mother's vigorous therapy sessions, even developing into a talented baseball player.
A new job for Addison Sr. brought the family to Louisville, Kentucky, where McConnell became student body president at duPont Manual High School. He held the same role at the University of Louisville, before graduating with honors in 1964 with a B.A. in history, and earning his J.D. in 1967 from the University of Kentucky College of Law.
Early Political Career
Setting his sights on a career in politics, McConnell interned for Kentucky Congressman Gene Snyder and Senator John Sherman Cooper in the mid-1960s. He served as chief legislative assistant for Senator Marlow Cook after law school, and later became a deputy assistant attorney general to President Gerald Ford.
In 1977, McConnell earned his first elected seat as judge-executive of Kentucky's Jefferson County. A moderate Republican early in his career, he supported collective bargaining rights for public employees and steered federal funds toward the expansion of Jefferson Memorial Forest.
In 1984, McConnell edged out Walter D. Huddleston for a seat in the Senate, making him the only Republican in the country to defeat an incumbent Democratic senator that year, as well as the first of his party to win a statewide race since 1968.
During his first term in the Senate, McConnell earned a spot on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and advocated for tax reform. Gaining traction after his reelection in 1990, he became known for his opposition to campaign-finance reform, and successfully spearheaded an effort to block legislation on that front in 1994.
Named chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee in 1996, McConnell continued to buck the tide at opportune moments. He sued the Federal Election Commission following the passage of the bipartisan McCain-Feingold Act in 2002, and in 2006 he opposed a constitutional amendment to ban the desecration of the American flag.
By then, the junior Kentucky senator had earned renown for his political cunning and ability to forge coalitions. He was voted party whip in 2002, and four years later he took over as Senate minority leader.
As the Senate's top Republican, McConnell rejected the Democratic push for establishing a timetable to withdraw troops from Iraq. In late 2008, he threw his support behind the Troubled Asset Relief Program, signed into law by outgoing President George W. Bush.
With the 2008 election of President Barack Obama giving Democrats control of the White House and both branches of Congress, McConnell focused on obstructing the new commander-in-chief whenever possible. Most notably, he opposed the passage of the economic stimulus package, known as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, and the health insurance reform package, the Affordable Care Act (also known as "Obamacare") in 2010. Additionally, he has stood against the closing of the Guantanamo Bay detention camp, delayed approval of Obama's judicial nominees, and a host of other legislation put forth during the Obama administration. Making his party's strategy explicit in a 2010 interview with the National Journal, he stated: "The single most important thing we want to achieve is for President Obama to be a one-term president."
While McConnell didn't achieve that goal, he saw gains with the Republican takeover of the House in 2010. Two years later, despite the Democrats’ push for gun control legislation after the December 2012 Sandy Hook massacre, McConnell voted against a 2013 bill that would have expanded background checks for gun purchases. He continued to push the Republican narrative of wasteful Democratic spending, fueling an ongoing dispute over the federal debt limit that eventually forced him into a deal to end a government shutdown in October 2013. Although his compromise angered the Tea Party faction of the GOP, McConnell survived the ensuing power struggle that brought down top House Republicans Eric Cantor and John Boehner. His reelection to the Senate capped another wave of Republican gains in 2014, giving him his long-coveted role of Senate majority leader.
With the votes in his favor, McConnell turned his attention to new legislation. He oversaw Senate approval of a five-year highway bill, struck deals to enact education and social security reforms and pushed for a bill to address an opioid epidemic. Additionally, he continued his work as the senior member of the Agriculture, Appropriations and Rules Committees.
The Senate leader infamously obstructed Obama once again following the death of Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia in February 2016. With an Obama appointment expected to tip the Court in a liberal direction, McConnell announced that "The American people should have a voice in the selection of their next Supreme Court Justice," and then refused to allow hearings for the nominee, Merrick Garland. Although the move drew condemnation from both sides of the aisle, McConnell's gambit paid off when Donald Trump was elected president in November 2016, assuring the eventual nomination and confirmation of conservative favorite Neil Gorsuch.
Obamacare Repeal and Tax Reform
With President Trump in office, McConnell and his fellow Republican lawmakers embarked on their long-promised effort to repeal Obamacare. After some early missteps, the House managed to pass their version of repeal legislation in May 2017. However, the Senate bill failed to generate enough traction to get over the hump, and with the defections of independent-minded Republican senators like John McCain and Susan Collins, McConnell first had to delay holding a vote, before suffering a rare public defeat when the revised version was rejected in July.
The failed bill fueled increased tension between McConnell and President Trump, already at odds over the direction of the Republican Party. However, McConnell got back on track by securing the passage of a sweeping Senate tax reform bill in early December. After he and House Speaker Paul Ryan reconciled their differences, the $1.5 trillion tax bill passed on December 20, 2017, giving Trump his first major legislative victory.
A devoted Baptist, McConnell in 2016 published a book, The Long Game, about his life and career in politics.
McConnell has three daughters with his first wife, Sherrill Redmon. In 1993, he married his second wife, Elaine Chao, who later served as George W. Bush’s secretary of labor. In November 2016, Chao was tapped by president-elect Trump for the position of transportation secretary. Upon this appointment, McConnell stated he would not recuse himself from his wife’s Senate confirmation.
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