'Little Rock Nine': 60th Anniversary of Central High Integration

On September 25, 1957 nine black students courageously started their first full day at an all-white high school in Little Rock, Arkansas, amid an angry mob of students, pro-segregationist groups and a defiant governor. The students would become known as the Little Rock Nine.
Little Rock Nine Photo Courtesy U.S. Army Wikimedia Commons

The Little Rock Nine being escorted by the U.S. Army at Central High. 

Led by Arkansas NAACP President Daisy Gaston Bates, nine black students took on the task of testing the U.S. Supreme Court's 1954 landmark ruling of Brown v. Board of Education, which declared that segregation was unconstitutional in American public schools.

Under the glare of an angry mob of white students, 1,200 armed soldiers, media cameras, and pro-segregationist governor Orval Faubus, the Little Rock Nine made their way to Central High. The students were: Minnijean Brown, Ernest Green, Thelma Mothershed, Gloria Ray, Melba Pattillo, Terrence Roberts, Jefferson Thomas, Carlotta Walls, and Elizabeth Eckford.

Eight of the students carpooled together, but because her family didn't have a phone, Eckford couldn't be reached. Thus, she arrived by herself, which is how the famous photograph transpired of her coolly walking towards the school entrance with notebook in hand as a screaming crowd surrounded her.

Elizabeth Eckford Little Rock Nine Photo

Elizabeth Eckford ignores the hostile screams and stares of fellow students on her first day of school. She was one of the nine black students whose integration into Little Rock's Central High School was ordered by a Federal Court following legal action by the NAACP.

The weeks leading up to September 25th were trying on the Little Rock Nine, who were counseled and hand-selected by Daisy Bates. Although they tried to attend Central High earlier, the continual threats of violence and bloodshed prevented them from attending classes. It was only when President Dwight Eisenhower sent 1,200 armed soldiers from the 101st Airborne to keep the peace that the Little Rock Nine were able to complete a full day of school.

But their lives were difficult. For the rest of the school year, they faced constant verbal and physical harassment — Melba Pattillo had acid thrown in her face, Gloria Ray was pushed down the stairs, Minnijean Brown was expelled for retaliating after a group of girls threw a purse full of combination locks at her. Brown's mother was even fired from her job because she wouldn't give in to pressure to pull her daughter out of the school.

On May 25, 1958 Ernest Green was the only one of the Nine that graduated from Central High. He was the first African-American to walk out of the school with a diploma. As for the rest of the students, they either received their diplomas through correspondence programs or from other high schools.

The Little Rock Nine went on to accomplish great things in their professional careers, some of them serving in the areas of higher education, mental health, and the criminal justice system. Green served under President Jimmy Carter as his assistant secretary in the Department of Labor. Pattillo became a reporter for NBC. Brown worked under President Bill Clinton in the Department of the Interior as the deputy assistant secretary for workforce diversity.

In 1999 President Clinton awarded the Little Rock Nine with the Congressional Gold Medal for their important role in the Civil Rights Movement. Ten years later, President Barack Obama invited them to his inauguration.

Of the Nine, Jefferson Thomas was the first to pass away. He died in 2010 from pancreatic cancer.