Menelik II was born on August 17, 1844 in Ankober, Shewa, Ethiopia. He was king of Shewa and emperor of Ethiopia (1889–1913). One of Ethiopia's greatest rulers, he expanded the empire almost to its present-day borders, repelled an Italian invasion at the great the Battle of Adwa, and carried out a wide-ranging program of modernization. He died in 1913.
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