Born in Indiana in 1959, U.S. Vice President Mike Pence attended Hanover College and the Indiana University McKinney School of Law. After losing two bids for a U.S. congressional seat, he became a conservative radio and TV talk show host in the 1990s. Pence successfully ran for Congress in 2000, rising to the powerful position of Republican conference chairman, before being elected governor of Indiana in 2012. In July 2016, Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump selected Pence as his vice presidential running mate. On November 8, 2016, Pence was elected vice president of the United States when Trump won the presidential race. He was sworn in as the U.S. Vice President on January 20, 2017.
Michael Richard Pence was born on June 7, 1959, in Columbus, Indiana. One of six children of Nancy and Edward Pence, a U.S. Army veteran who operated a series of gas stations, Mike Pence was politically influenced by the Irish Catholic leanings of his family. He grew up idolizing former President John F. Kennedy, and volunteered for the Bartholomew County Democratic Party as a student at Columbus North High School.
While church had played an important role in Pence's early family life, he became more deeply religious as a student at Hanover College. Additionally, although he voted for Jimmy Carter in 1980, he became inspired by Ronald Reagan and the Republican Party. After graduating with a B.A. in history in 1981, he moved to Indianapolis in 1983 to attend the Indiana University McKinney School of Law, earning his J.D. in 1986.
Early Professional Career
Mike Pence went into private practice following his graduation, and tried his hand at politics by becoming a precinct committeeman for the Marion County Republican Party. Seeking to make a bigger splash, he ran for Congress in 1988 and 1990, losing both times to Democrat Phil Sharp. However, Pence learned a valuable lesson in defeat; disgusted by his own line of attack ads, he penned an essay in 1991 titled "Confessions of a Negative Campaigner," and vowed to preach a positive message from then on.
Meanwhile, his public profile continued to grow. Pence served as president of the Indiana Policy Review Foundation from 1991 through 1993, before making the leap to radio talk show punditry with "The Mike Pence Show." Referring to himself as "Rush Limbaugh on decaf," Pence was unapologetic in his support of a conservative agenda, but was commended for his level-headed manner and willingness to listen to opposing views. His radio show was syndicated in 1994, and he branched out to television as a morning show host the following year, before ending both programs in 1999.
Mike Pence revived his political career by running for Congress again in 2000, this time winning a seat. Describing himself as "a Christian, a conservative and a Republican, in that order," he quickly demonstrated that he wasn't afraid to buck party lines. He opposed President George W. Bush's No Child Left Behind policy in 2001, as well as the Medicare prescription drug expansion the following year. While his positions rankled party elders, they bolstered his reputation as a man of strong convictions, and he easily won reelection five times.
Climbing the ranks of Republican leadership, Pence was named head of the Republican Study Committee in 2005. He was unsuccessful in his bid to become minority leader in 2006, losing to Ohio's John Boehner, but two years later he was unanimously elected to the powerful position of Republican conference chairman.
A staunch fiscal conservative, Pence insisted on cuts to the federal budget before supporting funding for Hurricane Katrina relief efforts in 2005, and was among the leading opponents of the federal bailout in 2008. He also drew attention for his social views, notably supporting a plan to shut down the government over a fight to defund Planned Parenthood in 2011.
In 2011, Mike Pence announced his intention to run for governor of Indiana the following year. Despite strong name recognition and a platform focused on tax cuts and job growth, he became embroiled in a heated race with Democrat John Gregg, eventually pulling out a close win with just under 50 percent of the vote.
After he became governor, Pence had his congressional papers, which are housed at Indiana University in Bloomington, sealed. According to the donor agreement, the public is forbidden from seeing his papers from the 12 years he served in Congress until either December 5, 2022, or the death of the donor, whichever is later.
In 2013, Pence sealed the deal on a $1.1 billion give-back, the largest tax cut in state history. He also signed into law the state's first pre-K funding program and steered funds toward infrastructure improvements. By 2016, Indiana was enjoying a $2-billion budget surplus and a pristine triple-A credit rating, but critics point out that the state's wages are below national average.
However, Pence found himself in the national spotlight and on shaky ground after signing the Religious Freedom Restoration Act in March 2015. Intending to protect business owners who didn't want to participate in same-sex weddings, Pence instead encountered resistance from moderate members of his party and corporations that threatened to pull out of the state, and he was forced to alter the bill to provide exemptions for LGBT communities. Similarly, he came under fire in the spring of 2016 for signing a bill that prohibits abortions when the fetus has a disability.
Donald Trump's Running Mate
Shortly after announcing his intention to run for a second term as governor, Pence returned to the national spotlight when he surfaced as the vice presidential candidate for likely 2016 Republican nominee Donald Trump. Although Pence had opposed some of Trump's views, he was believed to be a good running mate for the New York business mogul due to his ties to congressional leaders and strong support among conservatives. (Pence had originally endorsed Republican presidential candidate Ted Cruz during the primaries.)
On July 15, 2016, Trump officially announced that Pence was his choice for vice presidential nominee via Twitter.
At a press conference a day later, Trump called Pence “a man of honor, character and honesty.”
“If you look at one of the big reasons that I chose Mike — and, one of the reasons is party unity, I have to be honest,” Trump said. “So many people have said, ‘party unity.’ Because I’m an outsider. I don’t want to be an outsider.”
On July 20, 2016, Pence accepted his party’s vice presidential nomination at the Republican National Convention in Cleveland, Ohio. He followed Ted Cruz, who gave a controversial speech where he did not endorse Trump, and was then booed off the stage by delegates. In his acceptance speech, Pence remained composed and spoke of his running mate Trump: “You know, he’s a man known for a larger personality, a colorful style and lots of charisma. And so, I guess he was just looking for some balance on the ticket.”
"Donald Trump gets it. He's the genuine article. He's a doer in a game usually reserved for talkers," the vice presidential nominee continued. "And when Donald Trump does his talking, he doesn't tiptoe around the thousand new rules of political correctness. He's his own man, distinctly American. Where else would an independent spirit like his find a following than in the land of the free and the home of the brave?"
Historic Presidential Election
On November 8, 2016, Pence was elected vice president of the United States when Donald Trump won the presidential race, defeating Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton. The stunning Trump-Pence victory was considered a resounding rejection of establishment politics by blue-collar and working class Americans.
In the early hours of the following morning after the race had been called in Trump's favor, Pence spoke at the campaign's victory party at the Hilton Hotel in New York City. "This is a historic night. This is a historic time," Pence said to the crowd of supporters. "The American people have spoken and the American people have elected their new champion."
On November 11, Trump named Pence to be the head of his transition team, replacing New Jersey Governor Chris Christie. Pence's office also said he would continue to serve as Indiana governor until his term ends on January 9, 2017.
Back in his home state, Pence found himself in a legal battle, going to court to try to conceal the contents of an email sent to the him by a political ally. The email is connected with Pence’s decision to have Indiana join other states in suing to block President Barack Obama’s executive actions on immigration. Bill Groth, a Democratic lawyer, is seeking to have the contents of an attachment to the email made public in an appeal of an earlier court decision in which the Indiana Supreme Court ruled that it was "not for the court to decide" whether to release the emails. “I think governmental transparency is an important concern of anyone who lives in a democracy – the governor cannot put himself above the law,” Groth told the IndyStar.
The argument of Pence’s defense team is that the contents of the email are protected from being released under the state’s Access to Public Records Act.
U.S. Vice President
On January 20, 2017, Pence was sworn in on the steps in front of the U.S. Capitol by Supreme Court Justice of the United States Clarence Thomas. Pence took the oath of office before Donald J. Trump was sworn in as the 45th president of the United States.
A week after the inauguration, the vice president spoke at the March for Life anti-abortion rally in Washington, D.C. “Be assured, we will not grow weary,” Pence told activists before the march. “We will not rest until we restore a culture of life for ourselves and our posterity."
Vice President Pence also highlighted the Trump administration's support of the movement. "This administration will work with Congress to end taxpayer funding of abortion and abortion providers," he said. "And we will devote those resources to health-care services for women across America.”
In the first weeks of the Trump administration, Vice President Pence defended the controversial roll out of President Trump's executive order to ban immigrants from the predominantly Muslim countries of Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Somalia and Yemen for at least 90 days, temporarily suspend the entry of refugees for 120 days and bar Syrian refugees indefinitely. After the order was challenged in court by Bob Ferguson, the attorney general of Washington, and blocked by Judge James Robart of the Federal District Court in Seattle, the vice president said in an interview with Fox News Sunday: "We are going to win the arguments because we’re going to take the steps necessary to protect the country, which the president of the United States has the authority to do."
President Trump also put Pence in charge of a commission to investigate alleged voter fraud in the presidential election. The president, who won the electoral college, but lost the popular vote by nearly 3 million to Hillary Clinton, claimed that 3 to 5 million people had illegally voted in the election. Bipartisan politicians including Paul Ryan refuted the claim: “I’ve seen no evidence to that effect,” Ryan told reporters. “I’ve made that very, very clear.”
“At the very center of our democracy is the integrity of the vote — the one person, one vote principle,” Pence said in an interview with Fox News. “And it’ll be my honor to lead that commission on behalf of the president and to look into that and give the American people the facts.”
The vice president also played an important role in the confirmation of Betsy DeVos, President Trump's nominee for education secretary. Amidst protests from Democratic critics and teachers unions that DeVos, a billionaire charter school supporter with no experience working in public schools was unqualified for the position, the Senate dead-locked in a 50-50 tie. Republicans Senators Susan Collins of Maine and Lisa Murkowski of Alaska joined their Democratic colleagues in voting against DeVos. On February 7, 2017, Vice President Pence cast the historic tie-breaking vote to confirm her, the first time a vice president has been called on to break a tie in a cabinet nomination.
A week later, it was revealed that another Trump appointee, National Security Adviser Michael Flynn, had misled Vice President Pence about his conversations with Sergey Kislyak, the Russian ambassador to the United States, prior to the inauguration.
According to The Washington Post, Flynn “privately discussed U.S. sanctions against Russia with that country’s ambassador to the United States during the month before President Trump took office, contrary to public assertions by Trump officials.” Vice President Pence had appeared on CBS News’ Face the Nation stating that Flynn had told him that he and Kislyak “did not discuss anything having to do with the United States’ decision to expel diplomats or impose censure against Russia."
Flynn resigned on February 13, 2017, after less than one month on the job, and in his letter of resignation wrote: “Unfortunately, because of the fast pace of events, I inadvertently briefed the vice president-elect and others with incomplete information regarding my phone calls with the Russian ambassador. I have sincerely apologized to the president and the vice president, and they have accepted my apology.”
The Washington Post also reported that acting attorney general Sally Yates had informed the Trump administration on January 26, 2016 that “she believed Michael Flynn had misled senior administration officials about the nature of his communications with the Russian ambassador to the United States, and warned that the national security adviser was potentially vulnerable to Russian blackmail." Pence was not informed of this revelation until February 9, just days before Flynn's resignation.
Pence has been married to wife Karen since 1985. A former elementary school teacher, Karen has also been involved with youth-related nonprofit organizations. The couple has three adult children: Michael, Charlotte and Audrey.
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