- NAME: Alexander the Great
- OCCUPATION: King
- BIRTH DATE: c. 356 BCE
- DEATH DATE: c. 323 BCE
- EDUCATION: Temple of the Nymphs at Meiza (was tutored by Aristotle there)
- PLACE OF BIRTH: Pella, Macedonia
- PLACE OF DEATH: Babylon, Persia (now Iran)
- AKA: Alexander III
- AKA: Alexander II of Macedon
- AKA: Alexander the Great
- AKA: Mégas Aléxandros
- AKA: Great Alexander
Best Known For
Alexander the Great was the King of Macedonia. During his leadership he united Greece, reestablished the Corinthian League and conquered the Persian Empire.
Both Alexander's father and mother had a great influence on the man he became but his mother held a special significance in his upbringing.
In Babylon, Alexander the Great suffers a mysterious illness causing his death just a few days shy of his thirty-third birthday.
Alexander the Great created a timeless impression of himself as a god-like figure that lasts even until this day.
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After besieging Gaza on his way to Egypt, Alexander easily achieved his conquest; Egypt fell without resistance. In 331, he created the city of Alexandria, designed as a hub for Greek culture and commerce. Later that year, Alexander defeated the Persians at the Battle of Gaugamela. With the collapse of the Persian Army, Alexander became "King of Babylon, King of Asia, King of the Four Quarters of the World."
Alexander’s next conquest was eastern Iran,
where he created Macedonian colonies and in 327 seized the fortress in Ariamazes. After capturing Prince Oxyartes, Alexander married the prince’s daughter, Rhoxana.
In 328, Alexander defeated King Porus’ armies in northern India. Finding himself impressed by Porus, Alexander reinstated him as king and won his loyalty and forgiveness. Alexander forged eastward to the Ganges but headed back when his armies refused to advance any farther. On their way back along the Indus, Alexander was wounded by Malli warriors.
In 325, after Alexander had recovered, he and his army headed north along the rugged Persian Gulf, where many fell prey to illness, injury and death. In February 324, Alexander at last reached the city of Susa. Desperate to retain his leadership and recruit more soldiers, he tried to connect Persian nobles to Macedonians in order to create a ruling class. To this end, at Susa he commanded that a large number of Macedonians marry Persian princesses. After Alexander managed to recruit tens of thousands of Persian soldiers into his army, he dismissed many of his existing Macedonian soldiers. This enraged the soldiers, who spoke critically of Alexander’s new troops and condemned him for adopting Persian customs and manners. Alexander appeased the Macedonian soldiers by killing 13 Persian military leaders. The Thanksgiving Feast at Susa, which had been geared towards solidifying the bond between Persians and Macedonians, shaped up to be quite the opposite.
While considering the conquests of Carthage and Rome, Alexander the Great died of malaria in Babylon on June 13, 323 B.C. He was just 32 years old. Rhoxana gave birth to his son a few months later.
After Alexander died, his empire collapsed and the nations within it battled for power. Over time, the cultures of Greece and the Orient synthesized and thrived as a side effect of Alexander’s Empire, becoming part of his legacy and spreading the spirit of Panhellenism.
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