Sandford Fleming was a civil engineer and scientist. He emigrated from Scotland in 1845 to Canada, and by 1857, was the foremost engineer for the Ontario, Simcoe, and Huron Railways. In 1871, he became the engineer-in-chief of the Canadian Pacific Railway until his retirement in 1880. From 1880 to 1915, he served as chancellor of Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. Throughout these years, Fleming devoted himself to writing and scientific research, with contributions to the establishment of standard time zones and telegraph communication. In 1851, he deigned Canada's first postage stamp, the three penny beaver. He was knighted in 1897.
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