Rosalyn S. Yalow was born in New York City on July 19, 1921. Fighting prejudice against women in the sciences, Yalow found opportunities to train as a biochemist. As a medical physicist, she researched the mechanism underlying type II diabetes and developed radioimmunoassay, also known as RIA, an in vitro assay technique. Additionally, many of her techniques are used to test hepatitis. Yalow was a co-winner of the 1977 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. She was also awarded the National Medal of Science in 1988. She died in 2011.
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