Nicholas II Biography

Pope (c. 990–1061)
Nicholas II was pope of the Holy Roman Empire from 1059 to 1061. His reforms included the official ban on clerical marriage.


Gerard of Burgundy was born in France c. 990–995 and became bishop of Florence in 1045. His election to pope was complicated by a power struggle with Benedict X. As Pope Nicholas II (1059–1061), Gerard reformed the papal election process, banned the sale of religious artifacts, and ended clerical marriage. His alliance with Normans in the south of Italy caused a rift between Rome and Germany.

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