John Ruskin was born February 8, 1819 in London, England. His multivolume Modern Painters, planned as a defense of painter J.M.W. Turner, expanded to become a general survey of art. His other writings include The Seven Lamps of Architecture and The Stones of Venice. He also defended the Pre-Raphaelites. In 1869 he was elected Oxford's first Slade professor of fine art; he resigned in 1879.
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