Johannes Diederik van der Waals was born November 23, 1837, in Leiden, Netherlands. In 1910 he won the Nobel Prize for Physics for his research on the gaseous and liquid states of matter. His work made the study of temperatures near absolute zero possible, and also led Sir James Dewar of England and Heike Kamerlingh Onnes of The Netherlands to the determination of the necessary data for the liquefaction of hydrogen and helium.
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