Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin biography
Born on August 31, 1842 in Boston, Massachusetts, Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin was active in a number of social causes, including women's suffrage and the advancement of black women. In 1894, Ruffin and her daughter organized the Woman's Era Club, which Ruffin presided over for nearly a decade. In 1896, she became first vice president of the newly formed National Association of Colored Women, which was born when the National Federation of Afro-American Women and the Colored Women's League of Washington merged. Ruffin died on March 13, 1924, in Boston, Massachusetts.