- NAME: Stonewall Jackson
- OCCUPATION: Educator, General
- BIRTH DATE: January 21, 1824
- DEATH DATE: May 10, 1863
- EDUCATION: U.S. Military Academy at West Point
- PLACE OF BIRTH: Clarksburg (then Virginia), West Virginia
- PLACE OF DEATH: Guinea Station, Virginia
- Full Name: Thomas Jonathan Jackson
- AKA: Thomas Jackson
Best Known For
Stonewall Jackson was a leading Confederate general during the U.S. Civil War, commanding forces at Manassas, Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.
Stonewall Jackson rose to prominence and earned his most famous nickname at the First Battle of Bull Run (known by Southerners as First Manassas) in July, 1861.
Stonewall Jackson pressed his army to travel 646 miles in 48 days of marching and won five significant victories with a force of about 17,000 against a combined force of 60,000.
Gen. Robert E. Lee could trust Stonewall Jackson with deliberately non-detailed orders that conveyed Lee's overall objectives, what modern doctrine calls the "end state."
Military historians consider Stonewall Jackson to be one of the most gifted tactical commanders in U.S. history.
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During this period, dubbed the Seven Days Battles, Jackson did, however, manage to redeem himself with his quick-moving "foot cavalry" maneuvers at the battle of Cedar Mountain.
At the Second Battle of Bull Run in August of 1862,
John Pope and his Army of Virginia were convinced that Jackson and his soldiers had begun to retreat. This afforded Confederate General James Longstreet the opportunity to launch a missile assault against the Union Army, ultimately forcing Pope’s forces to retreat.
Against terrible odds, Jackson also managed to hold his Confederate troops in defensive position during the bloody battle of Antietam, until Lee ordered his Army of Northern Virginia to withdraw back across the Potomac River.
In October of 1862, General Lee reorganized his Army of Virginia into two corps. After being promoted to lieutenant general, Jackson took command of the second corps, leading them to decisive victory at the Battle of Fredericksburg.
Jackson achieved a whole new level of success at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May of 1863, when he struck General John Hooker’s Army of the Potomac from the rear. The attack created so many casualties that, within a few days, Hooker had no choice but to withdraw his troops.
On May 2, 1863, Jackson was accidentally shot by friendly fire from the 18th North Carolina Infantry Regiment. At a nearby field hospital, Jackson’s arm was amputated. On May 4, Jackson was transported to a second field hospital, in Guinea Station, Virginia. He died there of complications on May 10, 1863, at the age of 39, after uttering the last words, "Let us cross over the river and rest under the shade of trees."
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