- NAME: Roger B. Taney
- OCCUPATION: Lawyer, Supreme Court Justice, Government Official
- BIRTH DATE: March 17, 1777
- DEATH DATE: December 12, 1864
- EDUCATION: Dickinson College
- PLACE OF BIRTH: Calvert County, Maryland
- PLACE OF DEATH: Washington, D.C.
- Full Name: Roger Brooke Taney
- AKA: Roger B. Taney
- AKA: Roger Taney
Best Known For
Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney made the pro-slavery ruling in the 1857 Dred Scot Case that deemed blacks weren't citizens of the United States.
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Roger Brooke Taney was born on March 17, 1777, in Calvert County, Maryland. He served as attorney general and secretary of the treasury before being appointed the Supreme Court's fifth chief justice in 1836. Taney made history in the 1857 Dred Scot Case by ruling that black slaves were not citizens of the United States. This controversial historic figure died on December 12, 1864, in Washington, D.C.
Roger Brooke Taney (pronounced taw'-NY) was born on March 17, 1777, in Calvert County, Maryland, to successful tobacco farmer Michael Taney V and his wife, Monica Taney. Roger B. Taney was one of six children. As the second son, he wasn't going to inherit the Taney property, so he pursued law at Dickinson College in Pennsylvania over the family farming business.
Roger B. Taney passed the bar in 1799. That same year, he turned politician. A member of the Federalist party, Taney joined the Maryland House of Delegates. In 1816, he was elected to the Maryland Senate, serving a five-year term. Taney then ditched party loyalty to support Republican Andrew Jackson's successful 1829 run for the U.S. presidency. In turn, President Jackson made Taney attorney general in 1831. In this role, Taney assisted the president in dismantling the Second Bank of the United States. This led to his post as secretary of the treasury in 1833, where he continued the debatable move of removing the bank's federal funds and distributing them to banks in various states, especially to those supporting the Jackson Administration.
President Andrew Jacson attempted to reward his colleague once again for his devotion with a Supreme Court appointment in 1835, but the Senate rejected the appointment due to Taney's questionable undoing of the bank—marking the first time Congress had nixed a presidential nominee's confirmation for a Cabinet post. When Chief Justice John Marshall died in 1836, Jackson renominated his ally and Taney was confirmed, becoming the fifth Supreme Court justice as well as the first Roman Catholic to lead the United States' highest court.
On March 15, 1857, Taney delivered a pro-slavery decision in the Dred Scott v. Sanford case—marking how he would be remembered historically. Scott, a slave in the free state of Illinois and free territory of Wisconsin, wanted his freedom when he moved to Missouri, a slave state. Taney ruled against Scott, declaring that African Americans were not United States citizens and, thusly, had no right to sue. This chief justice also stated that Congress could not forbid slavery in U.S. territories. Taney's inflammatory wording included a statement that blacks "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect."
Despite receiving public backlash, especially from Republicans, including Abraham Lincoln, Taney held firm. On June 16, 1858, at the Illinois Republican convention, Lincoln, then an aspiring senator, gave the famous "House Divided" speech, stating, "What Dred Scott's master might lawfully do with Dred Scott, in the free state of Illinois, every other master may lawfully do with any other one, or 1,000 slaves, in Illinois, or in any other free state." Ironically, Lincoln was sworn in by Taney, who remained on the bench for 28 years, until his death on December 12, 1864, at the age of 87, in Washington, D.C.
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The Supreme Court has presided over landmark cases that have changed the history of the United States. At times, the judges themselves have been the history makers, as in the case of Thurgood Marshall, the first African-American Justice; Sandra Day O’Connor, the first woman to serve on the Supreme Court; and Sonia Sotomayor, the first Hispanic Supreme Court Justice. Here’s a look at the famous judges who have served on the United States' highest court.
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