Prince Philip Biography

Royalty, Duke, Prince(1921–)
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is best known as the husband of Queen Elizabeth II, the father of Prince Charles and the grandfather of Prince Harry and Prince William.

Synopsis

Prince Philip was born on the island of Corfu in Greece, on June 10, 1921. As members of Greek and Danish royalty, Philip and his family were banished from his native country when he was young, with the boy subsequently living in France, Germany and Britain. Philip married Elizabeth Windsor (Queen Elizabeth II) before her ascension to the British throne in 1952. Their children include the much-publicized figure Prince Charles, who has reportedly had a strained relationship with his father. Philip has served as the British royal consort for more than six decades. 

Background 

Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich, was born on the Greek island of Corfu on June 10, 1921. Also known as Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, Philip is the only son of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg. He had four older sisters: Cecilie, Sophie, Margarita and Theodora.

While not British, Philip does have family ties to England. Shortly after his birth, his maternal grandfather, Prince Louis of Battenberg, died in London. Louis was a naturalized British citizen who had renounced his German titles and adopted the surname Mountbatten during the First World War. Philip is also related to the British royal family as a descendant of Queen Victoria

Tumultuous Early Life

On September 22, 1922, Philip's uncle, King Constantine I of Greece, was forced to abdicate the throne. The military government arrested Prince Andrew and executed the commander of the army and five senior politicians. In December 1922, a revolutionary court banished Prince Andrew from Greece for life. Philip's family went to France, where they settled in the Paris suburb of Saint-Cloud. Over the ensuing years, Philip's mother was eventually committed to a psychiatric institution while his father relocated to the south of France, maintaining limited contact.

Philip attended the MacJannet American School before he was sent to the United Kingdom to study at the Cheam School. During the 1930s, he relocated to a school in Germany and then moved again to Scotland's Gordonstoun School, founded by Jewish headmaster Kurt Hahn following the rise of the Nazi party. Many of Philip's family members remained in Germany, including his sisters, who married into German aristocratic circles.

After graduating in 1939, Philip attended the Royal Naval College, where he excelled. During World War II, he served in the British Navy while in-law family members were on the opposing Axis side of the conflict.

Marriage to Queen Elizabeth II

In 1939, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth (the Queen Mother Elizabeth) toured the Royal Naval College. Philip escorted their two young daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret, who were distant cousins of Philip’s through Queen Victoria. The 13-year-old Elizabeth developed a crush on Philip during the trip. Elizabeth and Philip and began to exchange letters, which would continue for the next several years.

In the summer of 1946, Philip asked King George for his daughter's hand in marriage after allegedly proposing to Elizabeth first. The king agreed, provided that any formal engagement was delayed until Elizabeth's 21st birthday. To prepare for the announcement, Philip abandoned his Greek and Danish royal titles, took on the surname Mountbatten from his mother's family, adopted Anglicanism as a religion and became a British subject.

The engagement of Philip and Elizabeth was announced to the public on July 10, 1947. They were married on November 20, 1947, at Westminster Abbey, in a ceremony broadcast throughout the world by radio. On the morning of the wedding, Philip became the Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich. He and Elizabeth eventually had four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew and Edward. Prince Charles, as their oldest child, is the heir apparent to the throne.

King George died on February 6, 1952, leaving Elizabeth as his heir. Philip and Elizabeth heard the news of his death while traveling in Kenya. The accession of Elizabeth to the throne raised the question of the name of the royal house. On the advice of British prime minister Winston Churchill, Elizabeth proclaimed that the monarchy would continue to be known as the House of Windsor, a moniker first adopted by her grandfather George V

Official Activities and Family Affairs

Philip has remained the queen's consort for more than six decades, having accompanied her in her official duties and appearances throughout the world. In addition, he has participated in the work of many organizations, particularly favoring those focused on the environment, athletics and education. Philip launched the Duke of Edinburgh Awards in the mid-1950s, with a focus on youth achievement. He played polo until 1971, and has also competed in carriage and boat racing. He also enjoys flying airplanes, oil painting and art collecting.

While largely avoiding personal scandal, Philip is known for his outspoken nature and controversial remarks. In honor of his 90th birthday, in 2011 the Daily Mirror published a list of "90 classic gaffes" that have been attributed to Philip over the years. 

Within his family, Philip has intervened in personal relationships, which has led to conflict. In 1981, he pressured his son Charles to either wed or leave Lady Diana Spencer (Princess Diana). When their subsequent marriage proved difficult, Philip and the queen reportedly pushed for reconciliation.

After Princess Diana died in a car crash in 1997, Philip participated in her funeral, walking with grandsons William and Harry in the procession. Mohamed Al Fayed would publicly come to accuse Philip of being a racist who orchestrated the car crash which had killed Mohamed's son, Dodi Fayed, and Diana. An official inquest found no evidence of conspiracy, however, and the crash was ruled accidental.

Health Issues

With the prince having suffered previously from a blocked coronary artery and a bladder infection, in early June 2013, just days before his 92nd birthday, CNN reported that Philip had undergone "exploratory" abdominal surgery. He was released from the London Clinic on June 17 after more than a week hospitalized. 

In early 2015, Philip was made a knight affiliated with the Order of Australia for his decades of royal service, with the award granted by Australian prime minister Tony Abbott.   

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