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Niels Bohr was a Nobel Prize-winning physicist and humanitarian whose revolutionary theories on atomic structures helped shape research worldwide.
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Once Denmark became occupied by Nazi forces, the Bohr family escaped to Sweden, with Bohr and Aage eventually making their way to the U.S. as well. Bohr then worked with the Manhattan Project in Nevada, where the first atom bomb was being created. Because he had concerns about how the bomb could be used,
After the end of the war, Bohr returned to Europe and continued to call for peaceful applications of atomic energy. In his "Open Letter to the United Nations," dated June 9, 1950, Bohr envisioned an "open world" mode of existence between countries that abandoned isolationism for true cultural exchange.
In 1954, he helped to establish CERN, a Europe-based particle physics research facility, and put together the Atoms for Peace Conference of 1955. In 1957, Bohr received the Atoms for Peace Award for his trailblazing theories and efforts to use atomic energy responsibly.
Bohr was a prolific writer with more than 100 publications to his name. After having a stroke, he died on November 18, 1962, in Copenhagen. Bohr’s son, Aage, shared with two others the 1975 Nobel Prize in Physics for his research on motion in atomic nuclei.
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