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John Lindsay was a U.S. congressman and was the mayor of New York City during the 1960s. He is known for his "ghetto walks" and clashes with labor groups.
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In 1971 he changed his party affiliation from Republican to Democrat and ran for the presidential nomination, but dropped out when it became clear he was unable to win.
Although Lindsay had some successes in office—his "ghetto walks" in the late 1960s helped prevent the riots and racial violence that rocked other cities, and he increased efficiency by consolidating 50 city departments into 10—in 1972, 60 percent of New Yorkers said that Lindsay was doing a poor job,
according to a Gallup poll. He did not run for a third term in 1973.
After leaving office, Lindsay resumed practicing law and became a commentator on Good Morning America. In 1980 he ran for the Democratic nomination for U.S. Senator from New York, but received just 17 percent of the vote.
Lindsay was active in New York charities, and was appointed chairman of the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in 1984. He held that position until 1988, when he underwent open heart surgery. From then on, his health declined. He had a stroke in 1993, and was diagnosed with Parkinson's disease. When he found himself without health insurance in 1995, Mayor Rudolph Giuliani appointed him special counsel to the New York City Commission for the United Nations, so that he could receive health insurance and a pension. In 1999, Lindsay and his wife moved to Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Lindsay died there on December 19, 2000.
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