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Muhammad Hosni Sayyid Mubarak, known as Hosni Mubarak, was born on May 4, 1928 in Kafr-El Meselha, Egypt. The son of a government official, Mubarak began pursuing a military career path at a young age. He completed his studies at the Military Academy in 1949, and furthered his education at the Air Force Academy, where he learned to be a pilot. During his time at the Air Force Academy, Mubarak traveled to the Soviet Union to get some hands-on experience with their aircraft, which was also used in Egypt.
After graduating from the academy, Mubarak worked as a flight instructor. He rose through the ranks in the Egyptian Air Force, eventually becoming its director in 1966. In 1972, President Anwar el-Sadat appointed Mubarak as chief commander. Mubarak showed a talent for military strategy, distinguishing himself during the Yom Kippur War with Israel in 1973.
In 1975, Mubarak was selected to serve as Sadat's vice president. He became active in negotiations with other powers in the region. On October 6, 1981, Mubarak was sitting next to Sadat when he killed by Muslim extremists during a military parade. He was elected president of Egypt the following week.
As president, Mubarak was an influential force in the Middle East, helping with negotiations on several issues. He supported Egypt's peace treaty with Israel and U.S. efforts in the region, including the Persian Gulf Crisis. Within Egypt, however, Mubarak faced growing unrest during his time as president. Many objected to his restrictive regime, and sought greater personal and political freedoms. He survived two assassination attempts in the 1990s.
Beginning in January 2011, Mubarak faced increasing pressure to step down from office. Crowds of protestors filled the streets of Cairo, demanding for the end of his presidency and for democratic reforms. His regime attempted to end the protests through force, resulting in the deaths of several civilians. American President Barack Obama was just one of the world leaders who offered his support to the protesters. He called for Mubarak to step down as Egypt's president, saying "an orderly transition must be meaningful, it must be peaceful and it must begin now." After weeks of intense pressure, Mubarak finally agreed to resign on February 11, 2011. He and his family left Cairo and sought refuge at their home in the resort town Sharm el-Sheikh.
Newly ousted Mubarak and his two sons, Alaa and Gamal, were taken into custody in April 2011, as they were being investigated on corruption and abuse of power, among other charges. After being taken in custody, Mubarak had a "mild heart attack" during questioning.
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