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Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV became king of Germany in 1056 and was abdicated in 1105. He overthrew Pope Gregory VII because of conflicts over imperial rule.
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Henry IV died while trying to reconcile with the church to create a more lasting peace. In 1103, he agreed to go on a crusade to remove his excommunication and further support his son, Henry V, whom he had maneuvered to the throne in 1098. He also decreed a moratorium on feuds among the nobles for four years. But Henry V, fearing the feuds would continue, imprisoned his father and forced his abdication as emperor in December 1105.
Henry IV escaped to Liège and defeated his son's army, dying there on August 7, 1106. Henry IV was beloved by some, notably the citizenry, who looked to him as their champion, but was reviled by others, such as church officials who resented his attempts to keep imperial rule the dominant law. He lost that fight—at least for several hundred years, until Henry VIII of England.
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