Pintsized as a pea or big as a bowling ball, nutritional, durable, and versatile, nuts have been a staple of the human diet since time began, and archaeological evidence places them among our earliest foods. For that, the ancients worshiped them. And because they were relatively non-perishable, nuts sustained the imperial armies of Rome and China, the royal navies of England and Spain, and the native tribes that roamed the American wilderness. Today, we think of nuts as mere snacks, but in a poignant segment, we feature how a peanut product is used by organizations like UNICEF to reverse malnutrition in starving children in less than four weeks. And a powder ground from walnut shells cleans everything from ship hulls to the Space Shuttle. From ancient traditions of tree-picking and hand-gathering to today's powerful machine shakers, sophisticated irrigation techniques, and the latest bio-science, we'll provide a spread of history that's just as smooth as your peanut butter!
For every new snack food introduced, there are about 100 duds! Americans buy more than 4.3 billion pounds of snack food a year--in fact, snacking is quickly becoming America's favorite meal. A snack is defined as a meal or food item eaten hurriedly or casually, which might include anything from a candy bar to a hamburger. The word is derived from the Dutch word snacken, "to bite". Whether it's chips, pretzels, or popcorn, Americans love their snacks--especially if salty! Perhaps the first truly American salty snack was popcorn. But of all the salty treats we indulge in--pretzels, peanuts, corn chips--the potato chip is by far America's favorite snack, with annual sales in excess of $6 billion. Today, the larger food manufacturers are generally full-service snack companies--producing chips, pretzels, and other salty goodies. With creative new snack varieties on the way, the salty snack food industry shows no signs of waning.
Discover how many spices go into richly aromatic tikka masala, and why it's Britain's favorite meal; sweet and sour gummy worms get their mouth-puckering flavor; crunchy golden tortillas stay intact until they're stuffed full of Mexican treats on taco night; and seasonal Easter cr me eggs get that yummy and yolky egg-like filling.
Discover how sweet, crispy waffle cones get their ice cream-ready shape; rich, dark chocolate milk is transformed from creamy to dreamy; tangy Doritos nachos go from kernel to crunchy chip; and how the special ingredient in cheesy Indian dessert Kesar Rasmalai could break the bank.
Jane Bolin was a trailblazing attorney who became the first African-American female judge in the United States, serving on New York's Family Court for four decades.
Civil rights activist Amelia Boynton helped Martin Luther King Jr. plan the Selma to Montgomery March on Bloody Sunday, which led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Carol Moseley Braun became the first African-American woman to be elected to the U.S. Senate in 1992.
Ralph Bunche was a Nobel Peace Prize–winning academic and U.N. diplomat known for his peacekeeping efforts in the Middle East, Africa and the Mediterranean.
Shirley Chisholm became the first African-American congresswoman in 1968. Four years later, she became the first major-party black candidate to make a bid for the U.S. presidency.
Henry Ossian Flipper was the first African American to graduate from the United States Military Academy at West Point. As second lieutenant with the 10th Cavalry, he was framed for embezzlement.
Barbara Jordan was a U.S. congressional representative from Texas and was the first African American congresswoman to come from the Deep South.
Black leader, educator and diplomat John Mercer Langston is known as the first African-American lawyer in Ohio and the first black person to be elected to public office in the United States.
Constance Baker Motley was a legal advocate in the Civil Rights Movement. She became the first female African-American federal judge in 1966.
Barack Obama is the 44th and current president of the United States, and the first African American to serve as U.S. president. First elected to the presidency in 2008, he won a second term in 2012.
Pinckey Pinchback is best known as the first person of African-American descent to become governor of a U.S. state.
Patricia Roberts Harris was the first African-American woman to hold a Cabinet position, serve as U.S. ambassador and head a law school.
Junior Senator Tim Scott is the seventh African-American to win election to the U.S. Senate. He is also a former U.S. representative for South Carolina's first Congressional District.
Alexander Lucius Twilight is the first African American to graduate from a U.S. college (1823) and the first black American to win election to public office, joining the Vermont Legislature in 1836.