Elie Wiesel

Elie Wiesel Biography.com

Writer(1928–2016)
Elie Wiesel was a Nobel-Prize winning writer, teacher and activist known for his memoir Night, in which he recounted his experiences surviving the Holocaust.

Synopsis

Born on September 30, 1928, in Sighet, Romania, Elie Wiesel pursued Jewish religious studies before his family was forced into Nazi death camps during WWII. Wiesel survived, and later wrote the internationally acclaimed memoir Night. He also penned many books and became an activist, orator and teacher, speaking out against persecution and injustice across the globe. Wiesel died on July 2, 2016 at the age of 87. 

Early Life

Elie Wiesel was born Eliezer Wiesel on September 30, 1928, in Sighet, Romania to Shlomo and Sarah Wiesel. Wiesel, who grew up with three sisters and pursued religious studies at a nearby yeshiva, was influenced by the traditional spiritual beliefs of his grandfather and mother, as well as his father's liberal expressions of Judaism.

Surviving the Holocaust

In 1940, Hungary annexed Sighet and the Wiesels were among the Jewish families forced to live in ghettoes. In May 1944, Nazi Germany, with Hungary's agreement, forced Jews living in Sighet to be deported to the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland. At the age of 15, Wiesel and his entire family were sent to Auschwitz as part of the Holocaust, which took the lives of more than 6 million Jews. Wiesel was sent to Buna Werke labor camp, a sub-camp of Auschwitz III-Monowitz, with his father where they were forced to work under deplorable, inhumane conditions. They were transferred to other Nazi camps and force marched to Buchenwald where his father died after being beaten by a German soldier, just three months before the camp was liberated. Wiesel’s mother and younger sister Tzipora also died in the Holocaust. Elie was freed from Buchenwald in 1945. Of his relatives, only he and his older sisters Beatrice and Hilda survived.

Wiesel went on to study at the Sorbonne in France from 1948-51 and took up journalism, writing for French and Israeli publications. His friend and colleague François Mauriac, a French Nobel Laureate for Literature, encouraged him to write about his experiences in the camps; Wiesel would publish in Yiddish the memoir And the World Would Remain Silent in 1956. The book was shortened and published in France as La Nuit, and as Night for English readers in 1960. The memoir eventually became an acclaimed bestseller, translated into many languages, and is considered a seminal work on the terrors of the Holocaust. 

“Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed,” Mr. Wiesel wrote hauntingly of his experience. “Never shall I forget that smoke. Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky. Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. Never shall I forget the nocturnal silence which deprived me, for all eternity, of the desire to live. Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live long as God himself. Never.”

Night was followed by two novels, Dawn (1961) and Day (1962), to form a trilogy that looked closely at humankind’s destructive treatment of one another.

Writer and World Activist

Wiesel moved to New York in 1955 and became a U.S. citizen in 1963. He met Marion Rose, an Austrian Holocaust survivor, in New York, and they married in Jerusalem in 1969. 

Wiesel went on to write many books, including the novels Town of Luck (1962), The Gates of the Forest (1966) and The Oath (1973), and such nonfiction works as Souls on Fire: Portraits and Legends of Hasidic Masters (1982) and the memoir All Rivers Run to the Sea (1995). Wiesel also became a revered international activist, orator and figure of peace over the years, speaking out against injustices perpetrated in an array of countries, including South Africa, Bosnia, Cambodia and Rwanda. In 1978, Wiesel was appointed chair of the President's Commission on the Holocaust by President Jimmy Carter. He was honored across the world with a number of awards, including the U.S. Presidential Medal of Freedom and the French Legion of Honor's Grand Croix.

Teaching was another of Wiesel's passions, and he was appointed in the mid-1970s as Boston University's Andrew W. Mellon Professor in the Humanities. He also taught Judaic studies at the City University of New York, and served as a visiting scholar at Yale.

Wiesel won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1986. The Nobel citation honoring him stated: “Wiesel is a messenger to mankind. His message is one of peace, atonement and human dignity. His belief that the forces fighting evil in the world can be victorious is a hard-won belief.”

He founded the Elie Wiesel Foundation for Humanity with his wife Marion to "combat indifference, intolerance and injustice" throughout the world. The couple had one son, Elisha.

Wiesel died on July 2, 2016 at his home in Manhattan. He was 87.

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