- NAME: Charles de Coulomb
- OCCUPATION: Physicist
- BIRTH DATE: June 14, 1736
- DEATH DATE: August 23, 1806
- EDUCATION: Collège des Quatre-Nations, Royal Engineering School of Mézières (École royale du génie de Mézières)
- PLACE OF BIRTH: Angoulême, France
- PLACE OF DEATH: Paris, France
- Full Name: Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
- AKA: Charles de Coulomb
- AKA: Charles Coulomb
Best Known For
French engineer and physicist Charles de Coulomb made pioneering discoveries in electricity and magnetism, and came up with the theory called Coulomb's Law.
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Born on June 14, 1736, in Angoulême, France, Charles-Augustin de Coulomb studied engineering and plied his trade with the military before winning accolades for his work in torsion balances. He offered pioneering theories in the force found between electrical charges, as well as magnetic attraction and repulsion. The unit of measurement known as the coulomb is named in his honor. He died in Paris on August 23, 1806.
"The sciences are monuments devoted to the public good; each citizen owes to them a tribute proportional to his talents."
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb was born in Angoulême, France, on June 14, 1736, and went on to become one of the most important scientists in the early discovery of electricity. Both of his parents, Henri Coulomb, a lawyer, and Catherine Bajet, came from well-established aristocratic families in Angoulême, France. Soon, his family moved to Paris, where he studied mathematics and attended the Collège des Quatre-Nations.
Charles de Coulomb enrolled in military school in 1759, graduating from the Royal Engineering School of Mézières (École royale du génie de Mézières) in 1761. Early in his career, Coulomb worked in structural design and soil mechanics. Over the next 20 years, he was stationed in a number of locations. Beginning in 1764, he served nine years in Martinique, West Indies, and was in charge of building Fort Bourbon.
After falling ill with fever, in 1773, Charles de Coulomb returned to France and began some of his most important work on applied mechanics. That same year, he presented his first scholarly paper, "Statistical Problems applied to Architecture," to the Académie of Sciences. His use of calculus to overcome various discrepancies in engineering issues highly impressed the Académie.
In 1779, Charles de Coulomb was sent to Rochefort, France, to supervise the construction of a fort made entirely of wood. During this time, Coulomb used the shipyards at Rochefort for his research on friction and the stiffness of ropes. These experiments led to his major work, Theorie des Machines Simples ("Theory of Simple Machines"), in 1781, which won him the Grand Prix of the Académie of Sciences.
That same year, de Coulomb was appointed to report on the feasibility of a navigable canal in Brittany. He condemned the plan as expensive and unprofitable, but the French bureaucracy saw it differently and, thusly, temporarily penalized him. Indignant, Coulomb resigned, but was rejected. When asked to reevaluate the project, he came up with the same conclusions. An independent examination proved that he was right and he was rewarded for his efforts, but the experience soured him, and from this point, on he devoted his time to the study of physics.
In 1784, de Coulomb published a paper on the elasticity of wires under twisting stress. This led to his well-known study of torsion balance, which was subsequently used to determine the density of the earth. But most effectively, the process was used as a way of measuring the forces of frictional electricity and magnetism by de Coulomb himself.
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